Fix scrolling performance with CSS will-change property Jul. 1st, 2015 Chris Ruppel

Fix scrolling performance with CSS will-change property

July 1st, 2015

I recently saw Paul Lewis’ screencast demonstrating how trivial it can be to fix a particular kind of performance issue caused by scrolling. I knew the problem looked familiar and I realized it was right in my front yard, so to speak.

Four Kitchens’ very own website uses the exact same design feature: an element with a large, viewport-sized background image held in place by background-attachment: fixed while the foreground scrolls.

The problem with fixed

Let’s start with what we don’t want to change: the design. I don’t want to step on peoples’ toes, and I don’t want to throw great work out just because it doesn’t scroll fast enough for my taste. That’s mean. As a performance-minded developer, it’s up to me to fix this problem without altering the original design. That said, the scrolling performance on this piece of our homepage was miserable — something like 10 FPS. That’s very noticeable on the page. Since this is our homepage it’s something each visitor will notice within 5 or so seconds (unless they load the page and immediately click on the nav).

As Paul explains in his short video, using background-attachment: fixed causes a paint operation every time the user scrolls. Why? Well, the page has to reposition the content, and then, since its background image is supposed to appear as if it’s holding still, the browser has to repaint that image in a new location relative to its actual DOM elements. The performance for this feature is so bad that iOS simply ignores this property.

Diagnosing the problem

You can peer into the rendering process by opening the Timeline section of Chrome DevTools, hitting the record button in the upper left, then scrolling on our old homepage. You used to get something like the following graph. I have color-coded the 30fps (red) and 60fps (blue) lines on the graph. When one of the vertical bars exceeds 60fps, humans perceive this as a small jitter in the scrolling. When it constantly exceeds the 60fps line, we perceive it as not smooth. When it starts bumping into or exceeding the 30fps line, we think it’s pretty bad or possibly even broken.

Screenshot of Chrome DevTools Timeline before the performance optimization

Inside DevTools: the Timeline view shows how poorly our original homepage CSS performed. Each frame that Chrome renders is displayed as a vertical bar. Taller bars are bad.
As you can see, the bars are exceeding 30 FPS and are completely green. Green means that the pixels have to be repainted on screen; we can likely fix this in CSS. To make the comparison easier, I’ll show you the after-shot now:

Screenshot of Chrome DevTools Timeline after the performance optimization

Inside DevTools: the Timeline view no longer reports the excessive repainting we noticed before making the CSS changes. The wall of green has gone away. All bars are happily falling below the 60 FPS line, meaning the scrolling will be as smooth as butter.
Just a side note: there are other colors that you might see in the Timeline view. Purple is a layout which means the DOM needed to be adjusted, and yellow is scripting which means that JS took a long time to execute, thus blocking the main thread. Right now let’s focus on fixing repaints, represented by green.

Fixing fixed

As it turns out, Paul’s solution for JSConf’s site was exactly what we needed on our own homepage: the background image just needed its own element so it could move independently of the others. Look at the two versions of the code. It happens to be SCSS but there is nothing too special going on. You could make the same changes in plain CSS (marked by comments) and they’ll work in any browser which supports will-change.

Original CSS

.what-we-do-cards {
  @include clearfix;
  border-top: 10px solid rgba(255, 255, 255, .46);
  background-color: white;
  background: url('/img/front/strategy.jpg') no-repeat center center;
  background-attachment: fixed;
  background-size: cover;
  color: $white;
  padding-bottom: 4em;

You can see that our background image uses two GPU-intensive features of CSS: background-size: cover and background-attachment: fixed. Once we fix this painting issue neither will be a problem, since they will only be calculated once to render the initial page. Scrolling will no longer cause repainting once the image sits in its own layer.

GPU-friendly CSS

.what-we-do-cards {
  @include clearfix;
  border-top: 10px solid rgba(255, 255, 255, .46);
  color: $white;
  padding-bottom: 4em;
  overflow: hidden; // added for pseudo-element
  position: relative; // added for pseudo-element

  // Fixed-position background image
  &::before {
    content: ' ';
    position: fixed; // instead of background-attachment
    width: 100%;
    height: 100%;
    top: 0;
    left: 0;
    background-color: white;
    background: url('/img/front/strategy.jpg') no-repeat center center;
    background-size: cover;
    will-change: transform; // creates a new paint layer
    z-index: -1;

Most important is the will-change: transform property applied to the new pseudo-element (created by using the ::before selector). will-change is an official web standard that instructs a browser to render the element independently of its surroundings. Used sparingly, this property allows us to say “hey browser, this element will change somehow in the future, please paint it on its own unique layer so that its surroundings don’t affect how it is painted.”

The code described in this post has already been deployed, so go check out our scroll-friendly homepage:


Learn more

If you’d like to learn more about will-change, I’d recommend reading Everything you need to know about will-change by Sara Soueidan. This feature of CSS can really help in some situations, but it has an equal chance of hurting performance when misused. So please use it sparingly and learn about it before going overboard.

Everything you need to know about will-change

If you’d like to learn more about render performance in general, visit to peruse a list of resources that teach you how to identify and fix performance problems just like this one.



  • Weisk

    That was very helpful. Great job!

  • Ray Hwang

    when there’s multiple fixed background “sections”, the “overflow: hidden;” doesn’t seem to work in chrome.

    ie. is broken on chrome but works on safari and ie.

  • Ohmish

    How can I use this without SASS in the css?

    • Looks like all thats being utilised here is nesting. So just un-nest the pseudo element and apply it directly to its parent.

  • David Braun

    I got it to work (that is, to not break the page) on my website for the body’s background – but the timeline doesn’t seem to change at all?
    (and, how did you color-code the 30/60 fps? this seems so helpful…)

  • Very interesting post, thanks for the tips!